翻譯知識

十九大報告學習|六次“初心”不算多,還有51個“心”(上)

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在十九大報告中,出現了六次的“初心”似乎成了大家最為關注的詞。不過,如果再仔細翻閱報告,其實會發現還有其它幾種“心”,而且共出現51次之多:同心、信心、關心、核心、心連心……

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對于這些詞語的翻譯,一是肯定不能都翻譯成與heart或mind有關的詞,更不可能只是字面翻譯,而不顧上下文的語境。
心連心
全黨同志一定要永遠與人民同呼吸、共命運、心連心,永遠把人民對美好生活的向往作為奮斗目標,以永不懈怠的精神狀態和一往無前的奮斗姿態,繼續朝著實現中華民族偉大復興的宏偉目標奮勇前進。
In our Party, each and everyone of us must always breathe the same breath as the people, share the same future, andstay truly connected to?them. The aspirations of the people to live a better life must always be the focus of our efforts. We must keep on striving with endless energy toward the great goal of national rejuvenation.
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與人民心連心譯成“stay truly connected to people”,頗有與“不忘初心”的英譯stay true to the mission的風格,有某種內在的呼應。
Truely 在用作副詞時,更多地是用于強調或突顯所修飾詞語的特點。在《柯林斯英語詞典》里的解釋是:
You use truly to emphasize that something has all the features or qualities of a particular thing, or is the case to the fullest possible extent. 真正地;

例句:
Not all doctors truly understand the reproductive cycle.
并非所有的醫生都完全地了解生育周期。
衷心
把黨建設成為始終走在時代前列、人民衷心擁護、勇于自我革命、經得起各種風浪考驗、朝氣蓬勃的馬克思主義執政黨。
Build the Party into a vibrant Marxist governing party that is always at the forefront of the times, enjoys thewholehearted?support of the people, has the courage to reform itself,and is able to withstand all tests.
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“衷心”的意思是“指發自內心的;真心的、無保留的、忠實的、熱情?!庇⑽氖莣holehearted(注意這個詞是一個獨立的形容詞,不是wholeheart的過去分詞形式), 如《柯林斯英語詞典》的解釋:
?If you support or agree to something in a wholehearted way, you support or agree to it enthusiastically and completely. 全心全意的
這個詞也經常用在“全心全意為人民服務”的英文翻譯中??剎慰急疚暮竺嫻摹叭娜狻貝侍?。

例句:
The governor deserves our wholehearted support for having taken a step in this direction.
州長已朝這個方向邁進了一步,值得我們全心全意的支持。
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在這里將漢語的主謂結構轉變成了英語的動賓結構,由統一的the Party作邏輯主語。
心靈
我們將推動兩岸同胞共同弘揚中華文化,促進心靈契合。
We will encourage people from both sides to work together to promote Chinese culture and forge closer bonds between them.
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在這一句里,對于“心靈”的理解并沒有與中文一樣“虛化”,而是結合整個上下文的語境,強調兩岸同胞的“一家人”關系(bond of kinship)的更一進步,用closer bond來響應。
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在這里沒有用tie或relation,而是用bond,是因為bond本身具有一種強烈的情感關系,即《柯林斯英語詞典》里解釋的:
A bond between people is a strong feeling of friendship, love, or shared beliefs and experiences that unites them.
這是一種“強烈”情感紐帶,而不僅僅是一種客觀實際的關系。

例句:
The experience created a very special bond between us.
這段經歷構成了我們之間一條非常特殊的紐帶。
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另外,bond也強調人與人之間,或組織之間的一種緊密的聯系(close connection):
A bond between people or groups is a close connection that they have with each other, for example because they have a special agreement. 密切聯系

例句:
...the strong bond between church and nation.
…教會與國家的緊密聯系。

民心
中國堅持對外開放的基本國策,堅持打開國門搞建設,積極促進“一帶一路”國際合作,努力實現政策溝通、設施聯通、貿易暢通、資金融通、民心相通,打造國際合作新平臺,增添共同發展新動力。加大對發展中國家特別是最不發達國家援助力度,促進縮小南北發展差距。
China adheres to the fundamental national policy of opening up and pursues development with its doors open wide. China will actively promote international cooperation through the Belt and Road Initiative. In doing so, we hope to achieve policy, infrastructure, trade, financial, and?people-to-people connectivity?and thus build a new platform for international cooperation to create new drivers of shared development.
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“民心”既可是一種mind/thought of people 或也可用作“提喻”,即people。在這個語境里,“民心相通”自然是強調 people-to-people connectivity。這也是“一帶一路”戰略的“五通”重要內容之一。

在此之前,“民心相通”在《“一帶一路”倡議》英文版里用的是“people-to-people bond”。
民心相通是“一帶一路”建設的社會根基。
People-to-people bond?provides the public support for implementing the Initiative.
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不過,people-to-people connectivity在習近平主席5月份的“一帶一路”國際合作高峰論壇開幕式上的主旨演講里得到正式使用:
這是民心相通不斷促進的4年。
These four years have seen strengthened?people-to-people connectivity.
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另外,people-to-people exchange更多是指“人文交流”,比如“中美人文交流項目”就翻譯成China-US people-to-people exchange program。?

在十八大的報告中提到要促進兩岸人民之間的“人民往來”,用了people-to-people contact
密切人民往來,融洽同胞感情。
enhance...further?people-to-people contacts?to cultivate mutual goodwill.
主心骨
從此,中國人民謀求民族獨立、人民解放和國家富強、人民幸福的斗爭就有了主心骨,中國人民就從精神上由被動轉為主動。
From that moment on, the Chinese people have had in the Party a?backbone?for their pursuit of national independence and liberation, of a stronger and more prosperous country, and of their own happiness; and the mindset of the Chinese people has changed, from passivity to taking the the initiative.
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……確保黨在世界形勢深刻變化的歷史進程中始終走在時代前列,在應對國內外各種風險和考驗的歷史進程中始終成為全國人民的主心骨,在堅持和發展中國特色社會主義的歷史進程中始終成為堅強領導核心。
We must see that as history progresses and the world undergoes profound changes, the Party remains always ahead of the times; that as history progresses and we respond to risks and tests at home and abroad, the Party remains always the?backbone?of the nation; and that as history progresses and we continue to uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, the Party remains always a powerful leadership core.
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兩次出現的“主心骨”,都是用了英文backbone。在《柯林斯英語詞典》里所解釋的:
The backbone of an organization or system is the part of it that gives it its main strength.

例句:
The small business people of Britain are the economic backbone of the nation.
英國的小商人是國家經濟的支柱。
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除了backbone,表示“主心骨”意思的還有以下幾個詞,比較有文學色彩:
He had been?a rock in the shifting sands?of her existence.
他一直是她曲折坎坷的生活中的主心骨。
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Pat was?a tower of strength?to our whole family.
帕特是我們全家人的主心骨。
全心全意
必須堅持人民主體地位,堅持立黨為公、執政為民,踐行全心全意為人民服務的根本宗旨,把黨的群眾路線貫徹到治國理政全部活動之中,把人民對美好生活的向往作為奮斗目標,依靠人民創造歷史偉業。
We must ensure the principal status of the people, and adhere to the Party's commitment to serving the public good and exercising power in the interests of the people. We must observe the Party's fundamental purpose ofwholeheartedly?serving the people, and put into practice the Party's mass line in all aspects of governance. We must regard as our goal the people's aspirations to live a better life, and rely on the people to move history forward.
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對于“全心全意為人民服務”的英文,可能會在第一時間冒出來的是“serve the people wholeheartedly”,或是“serve the people with heart and soul”。在十九大的英文報告里,也是如此,不過略有調整,即wholeheartedly serve the people.
放心
實施食品安全戰略,讓人民吃得放心。
We will initiate a food safety strategy to ensure that people?have peace of mind about?what they're putting on their plates.

對于“放心”的英文翻譯詞,《新漢英大詞典》列舉了很多,如set one's mind at rest; be at ease; rest assured; rest one's heart; feel relieved [safe]。不過,在十九大的報告里,“放心”一詞的意思更多地是強調心態,用的是have peace of mind about
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例如,在BBC的一篇文章中就用了這個詞來表達類似的意思:
Dignity for life is our ambition and part of this is ensuring that our older people, who have worked a lifetime and deserve?a little peace of mind?in their retirement, are not exposed to abusers, " he added.




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